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Books / Papers

Kaltenbornfes publication 19091 150An analysis paper by IEE Directory Board member Prof. Dr. Markus Kaltenborn and Laura Kreft was published by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung in their series "Labour and social justice":

Governance principles for a global fund for social protection

Building long-term and sustainably financed social protection systems can make an important contribution to combating extreme poverty and inequality which are two key demands of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. There is a strong case for setting up an international financing mechanism for this purpose - a "Global Fund for Social Protection". But its governance structure would need to be based on a partnership-based framework. In particular, it should be designed in such a way that recipient governments retain full ownership of their social protection systems.

Markus Kaltenborn, Laura Kreft: Governance principles for a global fund for social protection. - Bonn ; Geneva : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung e.V. ; FES Geneva, March 2022. - 16 Seiten. - (Analysis). - (Labour and social justice)
ISBN 978-3-98628-122-9

Online available as PDF file

Book Chapters / Articles

mein fotoSadik Zada Book Chapter 978 3 030 86304 3A book with a chapter by IEE member Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada, Andrea Gatto and Nuwe Blick was published; their chapter:

Rural Electrification and Transition to Clean Cooking: The Case Study of Kanyegaramire and Kyamugarura Solar Mini-Grid Energy Cooperatives in the Kyenjojo District of Uganda

Access to electricity is fundamental to ensure basic human activities and is a direct measure of energy poverty. In recent years, significant steps towards rural electrification have been fostered by intergovernmental organisations with the scope to ensure energy security to all - especially rural people, the poor and the vulnerable. Cooking is a basic daily household activity and is strictly related to energy security. Nevertheless, in most developing countries and the rural world, cooking is still done through polluting, ineffective and dangerous kerosene stove and animal manure and primordial tools. To tackle this issue, pushed-down energy policies calibrated to enhance environmental, social and economic performances of rural households have to face ancient habits. This book chapter aims to analyze the feasibility of environmental preservation policies within cooking activities in Kyenjojo District of Uganda in terms of sustainability performance. The study is predicated on the field survey data with 63 households. The performed analyses indicate that electrification has not substantially changed the cooking behaviors of the households. Furthermore, the study analyses the causes for the lagging transition to clean energy use in cooking. We find that besides behavioural and taste aspects affordability and level of education play an important role in the context of the household-level energy transition. This significance of education may be imputed to the fact that poor rural people have not been educated about environmental protection and paves the way for new research explorations, bottom-up projects, sustainable development policies and energy transition modeling.

In: Leal Filho W., Vidal D.G., Dinis M.A.P., Dias R.C. (eds) Sustainable Policies and Practices in Energy, Environment and Health Research. World Sustainability Series. Springer, Cham., pp 547-562 (

SiebertMayIEE member Dr. Anne Siebert and Prof. Julian May from the University of the Western Cape worked together for a chapter in a book on public policy in Africa:

Food and nutrition security policies in Africa

Public policy for food and nutrition security has become a critical component of government strategies and development interventions, including food aid. It is also the subject of debate and contestation. Recent global dynamics, particularly in the unfolding responses to COVID-19, have shown that well-defined and timely food security policies are of utmost importance in the context of interlinked issues of hunger, volatile food prices, unstable food availability, and increasing prevalence of natural disasters. In this context, the Chapter starts with conceptualising Food and Nutrition Security Policies in Africa. The authors highlight moreover that COVID-19 redefined the ‘the poor’ by revealing the vulnerability of middle-class households. Many previously food secure households were confronted with difficulties in affording groceries, and women, in particular, have borne the brunt of the impact of the pandemic with reduced livelihood opportunities and more unpaid work. These recent experiences show that food insecurity issues are diverse, often remain hidden, and thus are not necessarily well integrated into public policy agendas. Thus, one of the tasks of this contribution is to provide a better understanding and sensitivity to these problems and related dire conditions. The authors underscore utmost importance to an engagement with peoples’ needs and ‘responses from below’, including supporting a vital informal food sector before citing recommendations for future food and nutrition security policies in Africa.

In: Onyango, G. (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Public Policy in Africa. Routledge, pp. 477-487. 

Journal Articles

mein fotoSustainabilityIEE member Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada published a journal article:

Political Economy of Green Hydrogen Rollout: A Global Perspective

The present article addresses the role of green hydrogen in the transition towards climate-neutral economies and reviews the central challenges for its emancipation as an economically viable source of energy. The study shows that countries with a substantial share of renewables in the energy mix, advanced natural gas pipeline infrastructure, and an advanced level of technological and economic development have a comparative advantage for the wider utilization of hydrogen in their national energy systems. The central conclusion of this review paper is that a green hydrogen rollout in the developed and oil-exporting developing and emerging countries is not a risk for the rest of the world in terms of the increasing technological disparities and conservation of underdevelopment and concomitant socio-economic problems of the Global South. The targets anchored in Paris Agreement, but even more in the EU Green Deal and the European Hydrogen Strategy will necessitate a substantial rollout of RESs in developing countries, and especially in the countries of the African Union because of the prioritization of the African continent within the energy cooperation frameworks of the EU Green Deal and the EU Hydrogen Strategy. Hence, the green hydrogen rollout will bridge the energy transition between Europe and Africa on the one hand, and climate and development targets on the other.

in: Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13464;

ParisHabitat International coverAn article by our new PhD student Ricardo Paris, together with several other authors (Himanshu Shekhar, Malvika Rautela, Mehmooda Maqsood, Rafael Maximiliano Flores de León, María Fernanda Romero-Aguirre, Marygrace Balinos, Mariana Estrada Velázquez, Gita Salehi Amri, Tamanna Rahman, Augustine Yaw Asuah, Jilan Hosni, Md Shahinoor Rahman), was published in the journal "Habitat International":

Are leading urban centers predisposed to global risks - A analysis of the global south from COVID-19 perspective

COVID-19 initially spread among prominent global cities and soon to the urban centers of countries across the globe. While cities are the hotbeds of activities, they also seem highly exposed to global risks including the pandemic. Using the case of COVID-19 and the World Risk Index framework, this paper examines if the leading cities from the global south are inherently vulnerable and exposed to global risks and can they exacerbate the overall risk of their respective nations. Compared against their respective national averages, most of the 20 cities from 10 countries analyzed in this paper, have higher exposure, lower adaptive capacity, higher coping capacity and varied susceptibility. As this relative understanding is based on respective national averages which are often lower than the global standards, even high performance on certain indicators may still result in elevated predisposition. This paper concludes that the leading urban centers from the global south are highly likely to be predisposed to global risks due to their inherent vulnerability and exposure, and many of the drivers of this predisposition are related to the process of urbanization itself. This predisposition can enhance the overall exposure and vulnerability of the nation in which they are located.

in: Habitat International, Volume 121, March 2022, 102517 (online first:

KhuranaBeierTRIALOG 139 coverFormer MADM student Nayani Khurana and her supervisor, former IEE member Dr. Raffael Beier worked together to publish her Master Thesis in an issue of TRIALOG:

Towering Aspirations and a Loss of Social Space? Dwellers‘ Notions of (In)justice in Social Housing Redevelopment in Mumbai

A study of social space is intrinsically about lived experiences – where people meet, engage and socialise in everyday life. These everyday experiences of space shape people‘s notion of (seeking) spatial justice. In this paper, we explore questions around spatial justice in the context of the Bombay Development Directorate chawl (a form of social housing) redevelopment project in Mumbai, India. Building on chawl residents‘ narratives from in-depth interviews and observations, this paper articulates people‘s subjective and frequently conflicting notions of justice in the project. The residents‘ notions further help us to understand the multi-dimensional nature of housing and different approaches to deliberating housing justice – grappling with questions on exclusion, aspirations and housing futures. We argue that chawl residents tend to appreciate the macro-level justice approach behind the redevelopment of their long-disregarded housing, yet the modes of implementation and potential changes in spatial practices pose various questions about justice at a micro-level of social space. The paper thus illustrates that justice claims are often antithetical to the lived experiences and spatial practices, hence implying that issues of spatial justice may be contradictory to an extent.

In: TRIALOG 139, "Just Cities", pp. 24-31. (more information here)

AlhajhasanTrialog 140 141IEE PhD student Salam Alhaj Hasan published a journal article in Trialog No. 140-141:

Work and Education Outcomes of Syrian Refugees in Jordan: Differences between Zaatari camp and Amman

Salam Alhaj investigates differences in work and education for Syrian refugees in Jordan between the Zaatari camp and the city of Amman. The author discusses the effect of residing in the camp on labour participation, engagement in formal work and having work permits, and the variations between Zaatari and Amman.

in: Trialog 140-141, Vol. 1-2/2022: Cities and Displacement, pp. 38-43. (More information here)

mein fotohorticulturaeA journal article by IEE member Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada, written together with Manpreet Kaur, Anil Bhat, and Rakesh Sharma from India, was published in "Horticulturae":

Productivity Analysis and Employment Effects of Marigold Cultivation in Jammu, India

The study addresses the potential of marigold cultivation in terms of income and employment effects in the subtropical region of Jammu. Within the field research, the authors have surveyed 100 marigold farmers from Jammu and Kathua districts of Jammu Region. The region is of special interest because of the disproportional unemployment and poverty rates. The study finds that marigold cultivation exhibits strong employment and income linkages. Marigold cultivation generates employment opportunities of 124.84 man-days (MD) in a season in comparison to 85.37 MD of rice and 49.58 MDs of wheat. Hence, marigold farming could create more and better-paid rural employment possibilities for peasants and lead to a substantial reduction of the poverty headcount ratios. Farmyard manure (FYM), fertilizers, plant protection, and machine hours have a statistically significant positive effect on marigold yield. The replacement of subsistence farming with a focus on wheat and rice by marigold farming is an important source of the growing of marigold production. The findings show that by focusing on the cultivation of marigolds, more jobs and profits for the private farmers are possible. This is in line with the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 1, no poverty, and SDG 8, decent work and economic growth. On the other hand, shifting from subsistence agriculture to cash crops that can be also exported to Europe and large cities could deteriorate food security in the rural developing areas. This kind of development could be in conflict with SDG 2, zero hunger. Hence, the agricultural and economic policies have to account for this trade-off and try to implement policies, which would facilitate the maximization of this kind of specialization without putting food security at risk. This finding is interesting both theoretically and in terms of applied development policies. In Jammu and Kathua, due to agricultural and food policies, marigold cultivation growth does not endanger food security. On the contrary, the growing level of income of the rural population enhance market demand for the local agri-food sector's output and assure a greater level of food security.

In: Horticulturae 8, no. 3: 263. (online available:

Niklasthrb 22 2.coverIEE member Britta Niklas is co-author of a journal article published in "Tourism and Hospitality Research" (together with Alexandre Guedes, Robin M. Back, and João Rebelo):

Implications of an exogenous shock (COVID-19) on wine tourism business: A Portuguese winery perspective

This study investigates the impact of an exogenous and unexpected shock (COVID-19) on the wine tourism business from the winery’s perspective. A sample of 146 Portuguese wineries was surveyed. The econometric results show that the share of wine tourism sales, the amount of dependence on exports and the assertiveness of brand recognition have a structural effect on direct-to-consumer tasting room wine sales, even when the winery’s business is disrupted by a shock that degrades the dynamics and flows of international trade. The research establishes a starting point that allows to understand the implications of an exogenous shock on the structure of the winery’s business, calling for further research on the firm’s economic performance as well as on the consumer’s behaviour in a post-pandemic context.

in: Tourism and Hospitality Research. April 2022. Online first:

KaltenbornVSSAR 2A16 007An article by Prof. Dr. Markus Kaltenborn and Anna Büscher was published in the journal "Vierteljahresschrift für Sozial- und Arbeitsrecht (VSSAR)":

Internationale Impfsolidarität oder Impfnationalismus? – Chronologie und rechtliche Einordnung der Maßnahmen zur globalen Verteilung von Impfstoffen in der COVID-19-Pandemie

In vielen Niedrigeinkommensländern sind dringend benötigte Arzneimittel nicht auf dem Markt oder für die große Mehrheit der Bevölkerung nur zu unerschwinglichen Preisen erhältlich. Dieses schon seit langem bekannte und vielfach auf internationalen Konferenzen thematisierte Problem hat in der COVID-19-Pandemie noch einmal zusätzlich an Bedeutung gewonnen. Die zur Bekämpfung des Virus notwendige globale Impfstoffversorgung weist auch zwei Jahre nach Ausbruch der Pandemie immer noch eklatante Defizite auf – vom Zugang zu COVID-19-Vakzinen sind vor allem zahlreiche Menschen in den Ländern des Globalen Südens faktisch ausgeschlossen. Man schätzt, dass bereits 8,18 Mrd. Dosen eines COVID-19-Impfstoffs verabreicht worden sind und 56,8 % der Weltbevölkerung mindestens eine Dosis erhalten haben. Allerdings ist dieser Anteil in Ländern mit niedrigem Einkommen deutlich geringer: Dort beträgt er gerade einmal 7,6 %. Während reiche Staaten ihre Bürger inzwischen zu Auffrischungsimpfungen aufrufen und – trotz hoher Impfquoten – dafür auch über ausreichende Impfstoffvorräte verfügen, ist es nicht einmal gelungen, die vulnerabelsten Gruppen in Entwicklungs- und Schwellenländern (also etwa 20 % der Bevölkerung) zu impfen. (...)

in: VSSAR 2022, 45 - 68 (Heft 1). 26 S. (online available)

Niklascover JDMMA journal article by IEE member Britta Niklas, together with Alexandre Guedes, Robin M. Back, João Rebelo, and V. Felipe Laurie, was published in the Journal of Destination Marketing & Management:

How resilient are wine tourism destinations to health-related security threats? A winery perspective

Previous studies have shown wine tourism destinations to remain resilient in the face of both natural and anthropogenic security threats. This has been attributed, especially in the case of the latter, to their low population density rural locations being perceived as safer than more densely populated urban areas. The outbreak of COVID19 in late 2019, which had become a global pandemic by early 2020, decimated the tourism industry and showed that previous perceptions of safety may no longer hold true. This research analyzes the influence of this health-related security threat, i.e., COVID-19, on wine tourism from a winery perspective. A sample of 228 wineries in wine-producing countries, surveyed during October 2020, were analyzed. Results show that wine tourism has been negatively affected by the pandemic, despite the relative ease of outdoor gathering and social distancing. Likewise, results exhibit geographically asymmetric effects, indicating that New World wineries, which generally have a more developed tourism infrastructure, were more likely to perceive COVID19's impact on wine tourism as more severe than Old World wineries. Managerial implications for wineries are also discussed.

Britta Niklas, Alexandre Guedes, Robin M. Back, João Rebelo, V. Felipe Laurie: How resilient are wine tourism destinations to health-related security threats? A winery perspective. In: Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, Volume 24, 2022, 100707. (online first:

Sadik Zadacover TASMA journal article by IEE member Dr. Elkhan R. Sadik-Zada, together with Andrea Gatto and Ibrahim Niftiyev, was published in Technology Analysis & Strategic Management:

E-government and petty corruption in public sector service delivery

The present study addresses the nexus between the development of e-government and petty corruption in the provision of public sector services in developing and transition economies.The augmented double superimposed principal-agent model serves as the theoretical framework of the present study and shows on the theoretical level how e-government could potentially limit petty corruption. To address the research question empirically, the study applies random tobit and linear random effects panel estimators to a dataset made of 121 countries, which covers the time period between 2008 and 2018. Estimations reveal that the adoption of electronic government in the delivery of public sector services has been the central factor that contributed to the reduction of petty corruption in developing and transition economies. The level of per capita income, political rights, civil liberties and share of natural resources in gross exports also correspond with less bribery in the public sector service delivery. Furthermore, the study finds that a lower level of socio-economic development corresponds with a greater level of petty corruption. Hence, e-government presents one of the utmost opportunities for socio-economic development and offers solutions for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of public administration.

Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada, Andrea Gatto & Ibrahim Niftiyev: E-government and petty corruption in public sector service delivery, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 2022 (available online:

NiklasAgribusiness coverA journal article by IEE member Britta Niklas, together with Jean-Marie Cardebat, Robin M. Back, Davide Gaeta ,Vicente Pinilla, João Rebelo, Roberto Jara-Rojas, and Guenter Schamel, was published in "Agribusiness":

Wine industry perceptions and reactions to the COVID-19 crisis in the Old and New Worlds: Do business models make a difference?

The COVID-19 crisis has severely impacted the wine industry, with producers in different countries affected differently and, therefore, differing in their perceptions toward it. These differing perceptions are assumed to be due to different business models, mainly linked to the distribution system adopted and resulting in varying distances of producers to distributors and consumers. While upstream integration characterizes the Old World, the New World applies a downstream business model, being more closely linked to distributors and consumers and, therefore, more vulnerable to shocks, which should lead to higher perceived impacts of the COVID-19 crisis. This study analyzes 542 surveys collected from wineries in nine countries, divided into New World, historical Old World, and emerging Old World. Econometric results show statistically significant differences in both the perceived impact of COVID-19 and wineries' responses in terms of planned investments, with the New World being more affected. A common desire by wineries to direct future investments towards direct-to-consumer sales and communication was found, to the detriment of investments in vineyards and cellars. This desire is particularly strong in the New World, in line with their focus on the downstream part of the value chain, underlying their greater reactivity to shocks and capacity to innovate.

Niklas, B., Cardebat, J.-M., Back, R. M., Gaeta, D., Pinilla, V., Rebelo, J., Jara-Rojas, R., & Schamel, G. (2022). Wine industry perceptions and reactions to the COVID-19 crisis in the Old and New Worlds: Do business models make a difference? Agribusiness, 1– 22. (online first:

mein fotoSEPS coverA journal article by IEE member Dr. Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada and Andrea Gatto was published in "Socio-Economic Planning Sciences":

Civic engagement and energy transition in the Nordic-Baltic Sea Region: Parametric and nonparametric inquiries

The role of civic participation in issues directly or indirectly related to environmental quality is reputed to be on the rise globally. Bottom-up grassroots movements can be conducive to powering socially acceptable, smooth, and hence, more efficient transitions toward low-carbon energy futures. This factor can also unlock the potential of communities, improving the adaptation and social acceptability towards major changes and providing possible policy instruments. On contrary, bottom-up grassroots movements are unfavorable to the extension of renewable energy capacities, especially in the case of wind energy, if this causes costs for the local communities, which outweigh the corresponding benefits. Determining these dynamics is pivotal for addressing public ecological concerns and calls for quantitative regional studies. This paper addresses the nexus between civic engagement and energy transition in 11 countries of the Nordic-Baltic Sea Region. The study detects a strong positive relationship between civic engagement within environmental organizations and the share of renewable energy sources in the domestic electricity mixes of the countries of the Nordic-Baltic Sea Region. Nonparametric panel estimator with fixed effects reveals that the impact of civic engagement has been continuously rising – i.e. the significance of civic engagement as a factor in the energy transition has risen. Nevertheless, the study also finds that the magnitude of civic engagement over the years has been relatively stable in most countries of the region since 1981. In a few of them, civic engagement has been declining. The work argues that this decline could be attributed to the fact that politics, especially since 2005, deemed environmental issues as an important aspect of public policy – a factor that contributed to mainstreaming the phenomenon.

Elkhan Richard Sadik-Zada and Andrea Gatto: Civic engagement and energy transition in the Nordic-Baltic Sea Region: Parametric and nonparametric inquiries. in: Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 2022, 101347 (open access:

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