Sascha Rosenberger (2014): ICTs and Development, What is Missing?
IEE Working Paper Vol. 203
A review of literature indicates that most approaches emphasize bridging the digital divide, an approach focused solely on material gaps. However, the digital divide is perhaps the last of many, preceded by social, educational, economic, knowledge, and motivational divides. This stems from an incomplete assessment of the underlying characteristics of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), which helps to perpetuate positivist approaches to technology deployment between social groups inside countries, as well as between countries. ICT4D is therefore seen as a misnomer that puts undue pressure on developing countries and neglects the responsibilities of actors in developed countries. The application of the notions of freedom, as presented by Sen and Stallman, in the analysis of ICT4D prompts for a more thorough consideration of the characteristics of technology being pushed for use in developing countries. This leads to the conclusion that common ICT4D approaches could reinforce developing countries’ dependence on foreign actors and delay or entirely prevent the development of locally relevant and empowering solutions.
Johannes Norpoth, Lukas Groß, and Rahima Aktar: Child Labour in Bangladesh: an Analysis of Gaps and Weaknesses of the Existing Legal Framework.
IEE Working Paper Vol. 204
Child labour, particularly in its worst forms, harms the health and general welfare of children. It is considered to be a decisive impediment to the development efforts of developing countries. Working children drop out of school early and the resulting comparative lack of knowledge and skills decreases their chances to find well-paid employment in the future. International legal documents, most prominently in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN CRC) and Conventions by the International Labour Organization (ILO), address the problem of child labour and call for an elimination of its worst forms. Despite efforts made at the international and national level child labour remains a common, and often socially accepted, scenario particularly in some developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the countries that still face the challenge of having a large number of children that are working under conditions considered as child labour. The prime reason is poverty. In recent years Bangladesh has taken various measures, including legal measures, to address the situation. This paper reviews reports on the child labour situation in Bangladesh and the current legal framework for child labour and demonstrates that there remain gaps in the legal and policy framework of Bangladesh.
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